What Is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor growth that comprises of cells of the prostate gland. The tumor normally grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. As the cancer advances, however, it can spread beyond the prostate into the surrounding tissues (local spread). Moreover, the cancer also can metastasize (spread even further) to other areas of the body such as bones, lungs and liver.

Why is it Important to be Informed About Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer. Most experts in this field, therefore, recommend that beginning at age 40, all men should undergo yearly screening for prostate cancer in order to give the best chance of detecting prostate cancer at an early stage.

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COMMON QUESTIONS ASKED ABOUT PROSTATE CANCER

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF PROSTATE CANCER?

At its earliest stages, of the disease most men will not experience any symptoms. However, as the tumor develops the following symptoms could indicate its presence:

  • A need to urinate frequently, specially at night.
  • Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine.
  • Weak, or interrupted flow of urine.
  • Painful or burning urination.
  • Difficulty in having an erection.
  • Painful ejaculation during intercourse.
  • Blood in urine or semen.
  • Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs.
THE MAJOR CAUSES OFWHAT ARE THE PROSTATE CANCER?

The cause of prostate cancer is unknown, however the following risk (predisposing) factors that have been associated with prostate cancer include:

  • Advancing age. *
  • Genetics (heredity).
  • Hormonal influences. **
  • Cigarette smoking.
  • Diets that are high in saturated fat.
  • And such environmental factors as toxins, chemicals, and industrial products.

*The chance of developing prostate cancer increase with age. As a matter of fact, some studies have suggested that among men over 80, between 50% and 80% of them may have prostate cancer.

**Testosterone, the male hormone, directly stimulates the growth of both normal prostate tissue and prostate cancer cells. Therefore, this hormone is thought to be involved in the development and growth of prostate cancer.

*The chance of developing prostate cancer increase with age.As a matter of fact, some studies have suggested that among men over 80, between 50% and 80% of them may have prostate cancer.

*Testosterone, the male hormone, directly stimulates the growth of both normal prostate tissue and prostate cancer cells.Therefore, this hormone is thought to be involved in the development and growth of prostate cancer.

 

HOW IS PROSTATE CANCER DIAGNOSED?

Once there is a suspicion of prostate cancer from the DRE or the PSA, the following additional tests may be done to confirm the diagnosis:

  • Urinalysis may show blood in the urine.
  • Urine or prostatic fluid cytology may reveal abnormal cells.
  • Prostate biopsy provides definitive diagnostic confirmation of prostate cancer.
  • CT scans, bone scan and/or chest x-ray may be done to see if the cancer has spread to other organs and the extent of the spread.
WHAT SCREENING TESTS ARE THERE FOR PROSTATE CANCER?

Prostate cancer usually is suspected initially because of abnormal results of one or both of the screening tests that are used to detect prostate cancer. These screening tests are a digital rectal examination (DRE), and a blood test called the prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  • During the digital rectal examination, the doctor examines (palpates) the prostate gland with his gloved index finger inserted through the anus to detect abnormalities in the gland.
  • If the result of the digital rectal examination raises suspicion of the presence of prostate cancer, than a PSA test is recommended.
HOW IS PROSTATE CANCER TREATED?

The treatment options for prostate cancer vary based on the stage of the tumor. In the early stages, surgery and radiation therapy may be used to remove or kill the tumor.

Prostate cancer that has spread may be treated with drugs to reduce testosterone levels, surgery to remove the testes, or chemotherapy.

Surgery, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy, can all interfere with sexual desire or sexual performance on either a temporary or permanent basis. These types of concerns should be discussed with a health care provider.

 

WHAT QUESTIONS SHOULD I ASK MY DOCTOR?
  • Is your PSA necessary every year?
  • When can I stop checking for Prostate Cancer?
  • Should all Prostate cancers be treated?
WHAT CAN I DO TO PREVENT PROSTATE CANCER?

You can reduce your risk of prostate cancer if you:

  • Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables. 
    Avoid high-fat foods and instead focus on choosing a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health.

    Whether you can prevent prostate cancer through diet has yet to be conclusively proved. But eating a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health.

  • Choose healthy foods over supplements.
    No studies have shown that supplements play a role in reducing your risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals so that you can maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body.
  • Exercise most days of the week. 
    Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. There is some evidence that men who don’t exercise have higher PSA levels, while men who exercise may have a lower risk of prostate cancer.

    Try to exercise most days of the week. If you’re new to exercise, start slow and work your way up to more exercise time each day.

  • Maintain a healthy weight. 
    If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor for help creating a plan for healthy weight loss.
  • Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer. 
    Men with a high risk of prostate cancer may consider medications or other treatments to reduce their risk. Some studies suggest that taking 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, including finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart), may reduce the overall risk of developing prostate cancer. These drugs are used to control prostate gland enlargement and hair loss in men.

    However, some evidence indicates that men taking these medications may have an increased risk of getting a more serious form of prostate cancer (high-grade prostate cancer). If you’re concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer, talk with your doctor.